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Naučná stezka Zlatý kůň

Agricultural exploitation of landscape

The landscape of Český kras has been populated by first farmers in the neolithic era (4000 BC). Another settlement wave came in the Bronze Age and in the older Iron Age (1300–600 BC). Settlement of the territory of Český kras was sparse in the younger Iron Age. Neither the Teutons in the first centuries of this era were interested in this territory. The landscape was enlivened by the Slavs in the 9th century AD. Their way of farming was at the beginning as follows: They cultivated a small part of land while the rest was left uncultivated. Exhausted cultivated land was lied fallow and another part was farmed instead. Rye, oat, millet, wheat and pulses were planted. In the period between 10th and 15th century a three-field system expanded (interchange of winter crops, spring crops and fallow lands) and the landscape consecutively acquired its agricultural character. After several regression waves (Hussite Wars, Thirty Years' War) came to a new development of agriculture only in the 18th century. Traditional tools were used for farming until the half of 19th century, drawable power was by oxen and horses supplied. Instead of millet asserted itself wheat and potatoes and sugar beet occurred. Sheep and goats were kept next to cattle. At the turn of 19th and 20th century a development of modern agriculture started. On bigger farms first mechanisation was implemented. In the period between the two World Wars first tractors appeared and industrial fertilizers started to be used in a bigger measure. After 1948 an era of collectivisation started. Many agricultural cooperatives originated (in Czech Jednotné zemědělské družstvo, JZD) and private smallholders gradually vanished. Today are in the territory of Český kras planted mainly cereals, oil plants, sugar beet, corn for silage and perennial fodder plants. Some ploughland is swarded. Animal production is being transferred from milk production to pasture breeding of meat cattle breeds.

GPS position

N 49° 54.863', E 14° 4.727'



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